They show the atmosphere, at least to the lower stratosphere, is in thermodynamic equilibrium which invalidates the local thermodynamic equilibrium assumption used by the global climate models.And I tempered that statement of mine with the. I need to calibrate the core before matter stream causes the weak ripples to. OT: Pono vs. iPhone [Re: Jim.
However, as Roy Spencer and others have repeatedly demonstrated, it is also consistent with there being a greenhouse effect.But the pressure level itself varies and takes the jet stream with it depending on the position of the jet stream in relation to the adjacent high and low pressure cells.Have they never heard of kinetic molecular theory and the 1st law of thermodynamics.Norman Wells, Northwest Territories, Canada requires three because the boundary layer, in winter time, can show a phase change very like the phase change observed in the tropopause.Hopefully, this site can help provide some critique and direction, and perhaps a connection to more meaningful analysis.
Red oxygen, the multimer they talk of has been characterised at 100 000 atm pressure in solid oxygen.It takes less energy to form ozone directly from oxygen multimers than from splitting diatomic oxygen molecules, although both require UV light.However, regardless of whether our multimer theory is correct, incorrect or partially correct, the phase change is remarkably clear and consistent once you start looking at the weather balloon data in terms of molar density vs. pressure.
Deal with it — Greater Fool – Authored by Garth TurnerBut, Brewer-Dobson circulation is very slow, too slow to create the observed changes.In conjunction with the higher solar irradiation during an El Nino in the respective area, the positive anomaly is thus created.Frank replies: Your criticisms of my oversimplifications are generally accurate and your comments appreciated.Modelers say it takes about two weeks for a typical packet of air to make a round trip from the top of the boundary layer to the tropopause and back, with a lot of up and down due to solar heating in the daytime.A law that is best derived by a combination of the Gibbs free energy values for the reacting species.Stephen, Their experiments show that convection (carrying heat energy with the air) is too slow to maintain equilibrium.Obviously, but individual jetstreams stay at their pressure level.
Reminds me of my Sissy and me. I can still remember a. I had this picture over my computer at. I feel safe if I hold your hand in mine, My hand curved.Instead of transmitting energy as proposed by the authors there is a transformation of energy between KE and PE whenever and wherever a change in height occurs.Review and Summary of three Important Atmospheric Physics Papers.Temperature as measurement includes all forms energy flowing where you do the measurement.In fact, water vapor multimers exist in the lower troposphere and create a phenomena called the water vapor continuum absorption.It seems that the data they are actually working from is measured pressure and temperature.
The dry soil in deserts warms up easily and loses energy fast as well.This is roughly greater than 0.1%. As figure 2 shows, the slope is relatively more variable in this region (region 3).It is just an assumption that has been made because models show that radiative transfer and convection are too slow.That initially would appear to leave just radiation and convection.
Congressional Record | Congress.gov | Library of Congress
The van Der Waal forces are much weaker than hydrogen bonding which is much weaker than covalent bonding.Ronan and others: If one is interested in seeing how gas molecules form multimers and dissociate near their boiling point, there is a wonderful online molecular dynamics simulation of the behavior of gas molecules.The change in temperature gradient at the tropopause has been known for a very long time, and has a standard interpretation that few seem to find even problematic, let alone requiring the postulation of otherwise unknown molecular behaviour.They find that, above the boundary layer (roughly the surface to 2 kilometers, the atmospheric layer that contains most of our weather), the trend of molar density and pressure is a line until the tropopause is reached.I am sorry that due to time constraints I could not contribute to the discussions as they were taking place.What drives the kinetic transfer of energy through the molecules.Whereas liquids are incompressible and this type of damage can result, gases are not.Because each box is isolated from the surrounding boxes, the rates of IR emission and absorption from the box are a function of.The Long Result has 185 ratings and 18 reviews. Maria said: This was my first encounter with John Brunner's work and I must admit it was quite enjoyable.
The warmer regions of the stratosphere are not particularly cold (270 K).Enough time for radiation to change the temperature of the air.Scott Hanselman on Programming, The Web, Open Source,.NET, The Cloud and More.They developed a model of the atmosphere that was consistent with literally millions of data points from measurements on the ground, from aircraft, and high-altitude research balloons.How fast do I need to prove the atmosphere is moving up and down.On Venus, there is a linear adiabatic lapse rate from the surface to about 70 km.For an atmosphere in equilibrium as a whole the downward force of gravity must on average exactly offset the upward pressure gradient force created by heating at the surface beneath that atmosphere.It definitely needs some attention from an atmospheric physicist with an open mind to provide a first appraisal and see if it is worthy of greater attention or publishing.The thing is that at base the authors are right but because they are not meteorolgists they are trying to reinvent the wheel.
The tetramer of oxygen can be formed at 1500000 psi i.e. 100 000 atmosphere pressure.Connolly and Connolly think that oxygen and nitrogen multimers form in and above the tropopause (see figure 3).The formation of multimers releases energy, which can account for at least some of the tropopause and stratospheric heating.They are therefore in contravention of the equilibrium laws that are obtained fromcombining the deltaG values of the individual species.In Paper 1, we avoided speculating on what is actually causing this phase change, and instead focused on describing the phase change itself.
What would be interesting, is combining this ideal molar density stuff with mass density.This ought to be elevated to the top of the post as it gives further understanding of some of the important concepts involved.Indeed, NASA wants to create a breathable atmosphere which inevitably means that the concentration of CO2 must be reduced down from 959,700 ppm.However it bothers me that they need a new term to define a vertical transfer of energy in the atmosphere.Perhaps you are making the same assumption that Perry and Pierrehumbert make which is that Equipartition of Energy holds in the limit as delta space goes to zero.
Obviously the surface warms faster during the day (sun shining) the atmosphere warms much slower.None of the ping-pong balls move very far, but the energy is quickly transmitted, mechanically, a long distance.As far as I can tell their work does not contain experiments, but a reinterpretation of the evidence.To see multimers, use a box with about 100 molecules and the slowest possible time step.Water vapour with its phase changes and being lighter than air simply enhances the ability of convection to neutralise radiative imbalances.This might be due to the formation of multimers at the surface.Can multimers be sampled and maybe kept at their ambient pressure and temperature.
It has been easy for me to get stuck in my computer chair for. It has been an enjoyable hobby of mine. Everything we do has ramifications and ripples.